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Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking

This is an introductory textbook in logic and critical thinking. The goal of the textbook is to provide the reader with a set of tools and skills that will enable them to identify and evaluate arguments. The book is intended for an introductory course that covers both formal and informal logic. As such, it is not a formal logic textbook, but is closer to what one would find marketed as a “critical thinking textbook.”

Author: Matthew J. Van Cleave, Lansing Community College

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License except where otherwise noted.


Modern Philosophy

This is a textbook (or better, a workbook) in modern philosophy. It combines readings from primary sources with two pedagogical tools. Paragraphs in italics introduce figures and texts. Numbered study questions (also in italics) ask students to reconstruct an argument or position from the text, or draw connections among the readings. And I have added an introductory chapter (Chapter 0 – Minilogic and Glossary), designed to present the basic tools of philosophy and sketch some principles and positions.

Authors: Walter Ott and Alexander Dunn

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.


A Concise Introduction to Logic

An introduction to formal logic suitable for undergraduates taking a general education course in logic or critical thinking, accessible and useful to any interested in gaining a basic understanding of logic. This text takes the unique approach of teaching logic through intellectual history; the author uses examples from important and celebrated arguments in philosophy to illustrate logical principles. The text also includes a basic introduction to findings of advanced logic. As indicators of where the student could go next with logic, the book closes with an overview of advanced topics, such as the axiomatic method, set theory, Peano arithmetic, and modal logic. Throughout, the text uses brief, concise chapters that readers will find easy to read and to review.

Author:Craig DeLancey, SUNY Oswego

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.


forall x: An Introduction to Formal Logic

An introductory textbook in formal logic covering the translation, proofs, and formal semantics for sentential and predicate logic.

Author: P.D. Magnus

Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.


Open Logic Project

The Open Logic Project is a collection of teaching materials on mathematical logic aimed at a non-mathematical audience, intended for use in advanced logic courses as taught in many philosophy departments. It is open-source: you can download the LaTeX code. It is open: you’re free to change it whichever way you like, and share your changes. It is collaborative: a team of people is working on it, using the GitHub platform, and we welcome contributions and feedback. And it is written with configurability in mind.

The Open Logic Project is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license


Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Over 1500 professional philosophers are donating their time and labor to collaboratively write, referee, and maintain this freely available online reference work. The goal is to offer high-quality and authoritative discussions about values, science, religion, politics, and ideas in general. Though presented as an open access work, note that the SEP is NOT openly licensed. The use of direct links to the HTML content is encouraged in the SEP Terms of Use.